TIMELY AND PROPERLY PROVIDED FIRST AID FOR BLEEDING CONTRIBUTES TO THE PRESERVATION OF LIFE AND RAPID RECOVERY OF THE VICTIM.
The main actions in the provision of first aid:
- If the bleeding is severe, the victim must be laid down and lift his legs.
- Temporarily stop the blood can be by squeezing a damaged vessel or a strong bending of the limb or by applying a tourniquet.
- Immediately call for emergency assistance.
- The wound must not be touched or washed, or foreign bodies removed.
- If the wound surface is dirty, then its edges should be cleaned in the direction of the wound; around the wound to apply (if any) antiseptic: iodine, hydrogen peroxide. Iodine should not get inside the wound.
First aid for arterial bleeding
First aid for bleeding from the arteries of the limbs is made by squeezing them, strong bending of the limb and the imposition of a tourniquet. If you can not squeeze the vessel of the limb with your fingers, you must bend the limb as much as possible, previously placing on the joint from the inside of a dense roll.
Ways of pressing the arteries:
- Carotid artery – press the palm of the hand to the back of the neck of the victim and press the other hand’s fingers on the artery.
- The brachial artery is easily accessible, it must be pressed against the brachial bone.
- It is difficult to stop the blood from the subclavian artery. To do this, you need to take the victim’s hand back and press the artery behind the collarbone to the first rib.
- The axillary artery should be pressed firmly with your fingers to clamp, because it is located quite deeply.
- The femoral artery is very large, it must be pressed against the femur with a fist. If this is not done, in 2-3 minutes, the victim may die.
- The femoral artery should be pressed in a generational pit, which does not require much effort.
If blood continues to flow, a tourniquet should be applied. It must be applied quickly, because the blood in this type of bleeding is very intense.
The tourniquet can be kept up to half an hour in winter and up to an hour in summer. If within the specified period of time the doctor has not arrived, you must slowly remove the tourniquet and wait until the blood circulation is restored. After that you should apply it again. In this case, the pulse on the damaged limb should not be felt. Then the blood will stop.
It must be remembered that a tourniquet with improper use is more dangerous than the bleeding itself.
If there is no special tourniquet, it can be replaced by such materials as a towel, belt, bandage. They are wrapped with a stick, and fix it to avoid spinning. LACES, THIN ROPE AND SIMILAR MATERIALS CAN NOT BE USED!
Assistance with bleeding from the vein
Providing first aid for venous bleeding is carried out immediately, because the injured veins can suck up air, which can clog blood vessels in various organs, which can cause the death of the victim.
The following should be done:
- a damp cloth should clean the skin in the direction of the wound;
- close the deep damage with a sterile swab;
- bend the limb, put several layers of sterile bandage on the wound surface;
- very tightly fasten the unrolled bandage on it for
- pressure maintenance;
- lift the limb and leave it in this position.
First aid in capillary bleeding
Capillary bleeding often stops on its own, but may be complicated by infection of the wound with pathogenic microbes. The greatest danger is internal capillary bleeding.
In providing first aid in case of capillary bleeding of the limbs should perform the following actions:
- Raise the damaged limb above the heart area, which helps reduce blood loss.
- In case of minor injuries, it is necessary to treat the skin around the wound with antiseptics. Cover the top with a bactericidal patch.
- If the blood is bleeding heavily, you should apply a pressure bandage.
- If the blood flow is very strong, you should bend the limb over the wound as much as possible. If this does not help – apply a tourniquet.
- Apply cold to the wound, which will stop the blood loss and reduce pain.