It should be borne in mind that each patient’s arterial hypertension can proceed in its own way. So, in some cases, the so-called white coat hypertension is observed, that is, increased blood pressure figures are detected only when blood pressure (BP) is measured by medical workers, and at home, the blood pressure level does not exceed normal values. It is impossible to ignore such fluctuations in blood pressure, since in the future they can contribute to the development of complications.
In most patients, blood pressure remains stably elevated – “stable” (persistent) hypertension develops.
Some patients may experience hypertensive crises – a sharp increase in blood pressure, which may be accompanied by increased headache, nausea, sometimes dizziness, palpitations. In such cases, emergency care and medical supervision are required and sometimes use ksalol.
It is very important for all patients suffering from arterial hypertension to control their blood pressure level, to contact medical professionals in a timely manner or learn how to measure it on their own. Monitoring the blood pressure level is necessary for the timely detection of arterial hypertension, fluctuations in blood pressure, hypertensive crises, as well as to monitor the correctness of treatment.
Reliable results when measuring blood pressure can be obtained by observing the basic rules regarding not only the device for measuring blood pressure, but also the patient himself and his environment. Basic measurement rules:
Before starting blood pressure measurement, the patient must sit for at least 5 minutes. in a relaxed state in a comfortable chair supported on its back, legs should be relaxed and not crossed.
The patient should not wear tight, pressing clothing.
It is not recommended to talk while measuring blood pressure.
Blood pressure should be measured successively 2-3 times at intervals of 1-2 minutes after the cuff is completely bled.
The average of two or three measurements taken on one arm reflects blood pressure more accurately than a single measurement.
The arm with the cuff on the shoulder should be bare and motionless, and should be placed on a table next to the chair.
The middle of the arm cuff should be at the same level as the patient’s heart. Deviation from this position can lead to a false measurement of blood pressure (overestimation of blood pressure when the cuff is positioned below the level of the heart and an underestimation of blood pressure – above the level of the heart).
It is desirable to measure blood pressure 2 times a day at the same time (morning and evening) at least 30 minutes later. after physical exertion, smoking, eating, drinking tea or coffee.
It is advisable to record the results of measuring blood pressure in a personal diary (for this you can use an ordinary notebook) in order to coordinate the treatment with your doctor later.
The environment around the patient when measuring blood pressure should be quiet and calm. The room should be warm (about 21 C), since low air temperature can cause an increase in blood pressure.
For patients suffering from arterial hypertension, it is advisable to purchase an apparatus for measuring blood pressure (tonometer) and be able to independently control its level. When measuring blood pressure at home, you can estimate its value on different days in everyday life. Blood pressure can be controlled by devices with a “manual” method of measurement. It is based on the method of listening to tones on the ulnar vessels (this method was proposed by N.S. Korotkov and is the most accurate). At home, semi-automatic or automatic blood pressure monitors are convenient. An important factor affecting the quality of self-monitoring of blood pressure is the use of instruments that meet accuracy standards. You should not purchase tonometers without documents confirming their compliance with accepted standards.
Currently, in cardiology clinics and dispensaries, automatic devices for daily registration of blood pressure are widely used during periods of wakefulness and sleep. 24-hour blood pressure monitoring data more accurately reflect the relationship between blood pressure and changes in vital organs in comparison with single blood pressure measurements.
The use of this method allows at home to identify the above-mentioned hypertension of the “white coat”, as well as to record drops and fluctuations in blood pressure not only during the day, but also at night. 24-hour monitoring of blood pressure helps doctors to assess the effectiveness of treatment for arterial hypertension with particular accuracy.
A patient suffering from arterial hypertension must be aware of how this disease proceeds in him, must be able to correctly control the blood pressure level and, if necessary, consult a doctor in a timely manner.